1.08.2007

365 años de la muerte de Galileo Galilei



Dicen los que saben, que la ciencia y los descubrimientos que se producen a través de su aplicación son una infinita sucesión de escalones fabricados por pequeñas y grandes contribuciones de toda la historia de la humanidad. Pero Galileo es sin duda un salto que acercó al hombre a los astros del firmamento. Por lo cual casi muere en la hoguera a manos de la "Santa" Inquisición.

Esta es la traducción de lo que en aquel 22 de junio de 1633 tuvo que declarar ante los tribunales:

La abjuración


A la edad de sesenta y nueve años, cuatro meses y siete días, Galileo fue llevado ante los jueces del Santo Oficio de la Iglesia y, puesto de rodillas, «confesó»:

Yo, Galileo Galilei, hijo del difunto florentino Vincenzio Galilei, de setenta años de edad, comparecido personalmente en juicio ante este tribunal, y puesto de rodillas ante vosotros, los Eminentísimos y Reverendísimos señores Cardenales Inquisidores generales de la República cristiana universal, respecto de materias de herejía, con la vista fija en los Santos Evangelios, que tengo en mis manos, declaro, que yo siempre he creído y creo ahora y que con la ayuda de Dios continuaré creyendo en lo sucesivo todo cuanto la Santa Iglesia Católica Apostólica Romana cree, predica y enseña. Mas, por cuanto este Santo Oficio ha mandado judicialmente que abandone la falsa opinión que he sostenido, de que el Sol está en el centro del Universo e inmóvil; que no profese, defienda ni, de cualquier manera que sea, enseñe, ni de palabra ni por escrito, dicha doctrina, prohibida por ser contraria a las Sagradas Escrituras... En consecuencia, deseando remover de la mente de Vuestras Eminencias y de todos los cristianos católicos esa vehemente sospecha legítimamente concebida contra mí, con sinceridad y de corazón y fe no fingida, abjuro, maldigo y detesto los arriba mencionados errores y herejías, y en general cualesquiera otros errores y sectas contrarios a la referida Santa Iglesia, y juro para lo sucesivo nunca más decir ni afirmar de palabra ni por escrito cosa alguna que pueda despertar semejante sospecha contra mí; antes por el contrario, juro denunciar cualquier hereje o persona sospechosa de herejía, de quien yo tenga noticia, a este Santo Oficio, o a los Inquisidores, o al juez eclesiástico del punto en que me halle. Juro además y prometo cumplir y observar exactamente todas las penitencias que se me han impuesto o que se me impusieren por este Santo Oficio. Mas en el caso de obrar yo en oposición con mis promesas, protestas y juramentos, lo que Dios no permita, me someto desde ahora a todas las penas y castigos decretados y promulgados contra los delincuentes de esta clase por los Sagrados Cánones y otras constituciones generales y disposiciones particulares. Así me ayude Dios y los Santos Evangelios sobre los cuales tengo extendidas las manos. Yo Galileo Galilei arriba mencionado, juro, prometo y me obligo en el modo y forma que acabo de decir, y en fe de estos mis compromisos, firmo de propio puño y letra esta mi abjuración, que he recitado palabra por palabra.

Se dice que inmediatamente después de su «confesión», Galilei exclamó: Eppur si muove (Y sin embargo se mueve).

En 1979 y en 1981, el papa Juan Pablo II encarga una comisión de estudiar la controversia de ptolemeo-copérnico de los Siglo XVI-Siglo XVII. Juan Pablo I] considera que no se trataba de rehabilitación. Esta es implícita después de las autorizaciones dadas por Benedicto XIV en 1741 y en 1757. Por otra parte, la institución que había condenado a Galileo no existe en la actualidad.

El 31 de octubre de 1992, Juan-Pablo II rinde una vez más homenaje al sabio durante su discurso a los partícipes en la sesión plenaria de la Academia pontifical de ciencias. En el reconoce claramente los errores de ciertos teológos del Siglo XVII en el asunto.

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